A love for the kebra negast, holy book of ethiopian christians and jamaican rastafarians. This volume contains a complete English translation of the famous Ethiopian work, The Kebra Nagast, i.e. "The Literary Sources", p. 370. In due course these documents were given to the Bodleian Library at Oxford University (shelfmark Bruce 87). The Kebra nagast (Glory of Kings), written from 1314 to 1322, relates the birth of Menelik—the son of Solomon and Makada, the queen of Sheba—who became the king of Ethiopia.The work became a crucial part of the literature and culture of Ethiopia. [20], 14th-century text about the Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia, Beginnings of modern scholarship of the book. The document is presented in the form of a debate by the 318 "orthodox fathers" of the First Council of Nicaea. And, in spite of the labours of PRORIUS, BEZOLD, and HUGUES LE ROUX, the contents of the work are still practically unknown to the general reader in England. The first summary of the contents of the KEBRA NAGAST was published by BRUCE as far back as 1813, but little interest was roused by his somewhat bald pr cis. [11], Careful study of the text has revealed traces of Arabic, possibly pointing to an Arabic Vorlage (prior version), but no clear evidence of a previous Coptic version. And, in spite of the labours of Prætorius, Bezold, and Hugues le Roux, the contents of the work are still practically unknown to the general reader in England. [18], Although August Dillmann prepared a summary of the contents of the Kebra Nagast, and published its colophon, no substantial portion of the narrative in the original language was available until F. Praetorius published chapters 19 through 32 with a Latin translation. In the first quarter of the 16th century, P.N. It is considered to hold the genealogy of the Solomonic dynasty, which followed the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. He had asked of Solomon only for a single tassel from the covering over the Ark, and Solomon had given him the entire cloth. Godinho published some traditions about King Solomon and his son Menelek, derived from the Kebra Nagast. On the journey home, she gives birth to Menelik (chapter 32).[6]. The first summary of the contents of the Kebra Nagast was published by Bruce as far back as 1813, but little interest was roused by his somewhat bald précis. And, in spite of the labours of Prætorius, Bezold, and Hugues le Roux, the contents of the work are still practically unknown to the general reader in England. V.— The Contents of the Kebra Nagast Described. The document is presented in the form of a debate by the 318 "orthodox fathers" of the First Council of Nicaea. The Kebra Nagast (var. Dr. Tiruneh has published several journal articles and is the author of the book, When is Democracy Normal? King Solomon then turns to solace from his wife, the daughter of the Pharaoh of Egypt, and she seduces him into worshiping the idols of her land (chapter 64). Legends of the Queen of SHEBA in the UR’ÂN 4. "[2], The Kebra Nagast is divided into 117 chapters, and is clearly a composite work; Ullendorff describes its narrative as "a gigantic conflation of legendary cycles. Summary of the Contents of the KEBRA NAGAST THE CHAPTERS OF THE KEBRA NAGAST 1. Queen Makeda learns from Tamrin, a merchant based in her kingdom, about the wisdom of King Solomon, and travels to Jerusalem to visit him. Summary of Contents. He does this by using each chapter to describe a specific family line, such as chapter 72 and 73 discussing the family tree of Constantine or chapters 74 and 75 to describe two separate seeds of Shem. Home » Uncategories » The Kebra Negast the Book of the Glory of Kings with 15 original illustrations Aziloth Books From Aziloth Books Online PDF eBook. The Kebra Nagast (var. In this edition, selections have been taken from The Queen of Sheba and Her Only Son Menyelek and supplemented with tales of Gerald Hausman's experiences with Rastas in Jamaica. "[7] Hubbard further speculates that this selection from the Old Testament might be as old as Frumentius, who had converted the Kingdom of Axum to Christianity.[8]. Translation of the Arabic Version 3. Although the author of the final redaction identified this Gregory with Gregory Thaumaturgus, who lived in the 3rd century before this Council, the time and the allusion to Gregory's imprisonment for 15 years by the king of Armenia make Gregory the Illuminator a better fit.[5]. the book of kings " . The Kebra Nagast is divided into 117 chapters, and is clearly a composite work; Ullendorff describes its narrative as "a gigantic conflation of legendary cycles." According to the colophon attached to most of the existing copies, the Kebra Nagast originally was written in Coptic, then translated into Arabic in the Year of Mercy 409 (dated to AD 1225),[9] and then into Ge'ez by a team of clerics in Ethiopia—Yəsḥaq, Yəmḥarännä ˀAb, Ḥəzbä-Krəstos, Ǝndrəyas, Filəp̣p̣os, and Mäḥari ˀAb—during the office of Abuna Abba Giyorgis and at the command of the governor of Enderta Ya'ibika Igzi'. The Kebra Nagast concludes with a final prophecy that the power of Rome will be eclipsed by the power of Ethiopia, and describes how king Kaleb of Axum, will subdue the Jews living in Najran, and make his younger son Gabra Masqal his heir (chapter 117). [19] However 35 years passed before the entire text was published by Carl Bezold, with commentary, in 1905. The Kebra Nagast (var. The book opens with an interpretation and explanation of the Three Hundred and Eighteen Orthodox Fathers concerning the children of Adam, and the statement that the Trinity lived in Zion, the Tabernacle of the Law of God, which God made in the fortress of His holiness before He made anything else. 6–8. She is enthralled by his display of learning and knowledge, and declares "From this moment I will not worship the sun, but will worship the Creator of the sun, the God of Israel" (chapter 28). She is enthralled by his display of learning and knowledge, and declares "From this moment I will not worship the sun, but will worship the Creator of the sun, the God of Israel." and the 6th century C.E. These chapters seek to prove by OT [Old Testament] allegories and proof-texts the Messianic purpose of Jesus, the validity of the Ethiopian forms of worship, and the spiritual supremacy of Ethiopia over Israel. This volume contains an English translation of the famous Ethiopian work, Kebra Nagast, The Glory Of Kings. He discusses heavily the intermixing of the royal families in order to preserve their own power and to ensure that their blood line survives. The first summary of the contents of the Kebra Nagast was published by Bruce as far back as 1813, but little interest was roused by his somewhat bald précis. Hubbard further speculates that this selection from the Old Testament might be as old as Frumentius, who had converted the Kingdom of Axum to Christianity. This particular edition is in a Hardcover format. This company of young men, upset over leaving Jerusalem, then smuggle the Ark from the Temple and out of Solomon's kingdom (chapters 45-48) without Menelik's knowledge. The Queen of Sheeba – Kebra Nagast. the Glory of the Kings [of Ethiopia]. Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, Wendy Belcher, "Medieval African and European Texts about the Queen of Sheba", Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kebra_Nagast&oldid=986596353, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The first summary of the contents of the Kebra Nagast was published by Bruce as far back as 1813, but little interest was roused by his somewhat bald précis. The term "Jah" is a shortened version of "Jehovah", the name of God in English translations of the Old Testament. King Solomon then settles for sending home with him a company formed from the first-born sons of the elders of his kingdom. After chapter 94, the author takes a step back and describes a more global view of what he had been describing in previous chapters. After a question from the 318 bishops of the Council, Domitius continues with a paraphrase of Biblical history (chapters 66–83). Kebra Nagast means Glory of Kings, and is the story of the Kings of Ethiopia. the preface book-summary of the kebra negast read aloud , rastafari text , kings of kings and lords of lords praise jah rastafari . " Domitius is identified at the beginning of this section as "Archbishop of Rom" (i.e. The Kebra Nagast is divided into 117 chapters, and, even after a single reading, one can see that it is clearly a composite work; Ullendorff describes its narrative "a gigantic conflation of legendary cycles." And, in spite of the labours of Prætorius, Bezold, and Hugues le Roux, the contents of the work are still practically unknown to … And, in spite of the labours of Pr¾torius, Bezold, and Hugues le Roux, the contents of the work are still Although the author of the final redaction identified this Gregory with Gregory Thaumaturgus, who lived in the 3rd century before this Council, the time and the allusion to Gregory's imprisonment for 15 years by the king of Armenia make Gregory the Illuminator a better fit. When Bruce was leaving Gondar, Ras Mikael Sehul, the powerful Inderase (regent) of Emperor Tekle Haymanot II, gave him several of the most valuable Ethiopic manuscripts and among them was a copy of the Kebra Nagast. After a question from the 318 bishops of the Council, Domitius continues with a paraphrase of Biblical history (chapters 66-83) then describes Menelik's arrival at Axum, where he is feasted and Makeda abdicates the throne in his favor. Gerald Hausman. The KEBRA NAGAST, or the Book of the Glory of Kings of Ethiopia, has been in existence for at least a thousand years, and contains the true history of the origin of the Solomonic line of kings in Ethiopia. The first summary of the contents of the KEBRA NAGAST was published by BRUCE as far back as 1813, but little interest was roused by his somewhat bald précis. The document is presented in the form of a debate by the 318 "orthodox fathers" of the First Council of Nicaea. 51-72) A corrected version of the author information (p. 51) is provided below: Gizachew Tiruneh is an associate professor of political science at the University of Central Arkansas. King Solomon then turns to solace from his wife, the daughter of the Pharaoh of Egypt, and she seduces him into worshiping the idols of her land (chapter 64). The author then describes Menelik's arrival at Axum, where he is feasted and Makeda abdicates the throne in his favor. He had asked of Solomon only for a single tassel from the covering over the Ark, and Solomon had given him the entire cloth. It is a combination of two texts, the Sheba and the Caleb Cycles, respectively describing historical events in the 10th century B.C.E. These fathers pose the question, "Of what doth the Glory of Kings consist?" The document is presented in the form of a debate by the 318 "orthodox fathers" of the First Council of Nicaea. After this, the archbishop Domitius reads from a book he had found in the church of "Sophia" (possibly Hagia Sophia), which introduces what Hubbard calls "the centerpiece" of this work, the story of Makeda (better known as the Queen of Sheba), King Solomon, Menelik I, and how the Ark came to Ethiopia (chapters 19-94). After praising the book Domitius has found, which has established not only Ethiopia's possession of the true Ark of the Covenant, but that the Solomonic dynasty is descended from the first-born son of Solomon (chapter 95). The Kebra Nagast concludes with a final prophecy that the power of Rome will be eclipsed by the power of Ethiopia, and describes how king Kaleb of Axum will subdue the Jews living in Najran, and make his younger son Gabra Masqal his heir (chapter 117). The Kebra Nagast: Can Its Secrets Be Revealed? Tuesday, July 11, 2017. Overjoyed by this reunion, Solomon tries to convince Menelik to stay and succeed him as king, but Menelik insists on returning to his mother in Ethiopia. When the third edition of his Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile was published in 1813, a description of the contents of the original manuscript was included. Jah and Jesus of Nazareth. “The Sabaean Inscriptions at Adi Kaweh”, This page was last edited on 1 November 2020, at 20:53. Summary: Tracing their lineage back to King Solomon, Rastafarians follow a spiritual tradition of peace and meditation that is more a way of life than an organized religion. (Sheba or Saba’ encompasses Yemen in southeast Arabia but also Ethiopia, where the Amharic people speak a closely related Semitic language.) Phillipson, Daniel 'Foundations of an African Civilisation: Aksum and the Northern Horn, 1000 BC – AD 1300' (Rochester, NY: 2012) pp66. Kebra Negast, Ge’ez, kəbrä nägäst), or the Book of the Glory of Kings, is an account written in Ge’ez of the origins of the Solomonic line. The Kebra nagast (Glory of Kings), written from to , relates the birth of Menelik—the son of Solomon and Makada, the queen of Sheba—who became. One of the earliest collections of documents of Ethiopia came through the writings of Francisco Álvares, official envoy which king Manuel I of Portugal, sent to Dawit II of Ethiopia, under Ambassador Dom Rodrigo de Lima. Kebra Negast, Ge'ez ክብረ ነገሥት, kəbrä nägäśt), or The Glory of the Kings, is a 14th-century[1] national epic account written in Ge'ez by Is'haq Neburä -Id of Axum. One Gregory answers with a speech (chapters 3–17) which ends with the statement that a copy of the Glory of God was made by Moses and kept in the Ark of the Covenant. It was not until the close of the eighteenth century when James Bruce of Kinnaird, the famous Scottish explorer, published an account of his travels in search of the sources of the Nile, that some information as to the contents of the Kebra Nagast came to be generally known amongst European scholars and theologians. The Glory of Kings 2. "[2] The document is presented in the form of a debate by the 318 "orthodox fathers" of the First Council of Nicaea. Many scholars doubt that a Coptic version ever existed, and that the history of the text goes back no further than the Arabic vorlage. (David Allan Hubbard, "The Literary Sources of the. Akademie de Wissenschaften, 1905), is available at. This company of young men, upset over leaving Jerusalem, then smuggles the Ark from the Temple and out of Solomon's kingdom (chapters 45–48) without Menelik's knowledge. Leeman, Bernard. They include not only both Testaments of the Bible (although heavier use is made of the Old Testament than the New), but he detects evidence of Rabbinical sources, and influence from deuterocanonical or apocryphal works (especially the Book of Enoch and Book of Jubilees, both canonical in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and such Syriac works as the Book of the Cave of Treasures, and its derivatives the Book of Adam and Eve and the Book of the Bee). The first summary of the contents of the Kebra Nagast was published by Bruce as far back as 1813, but little interest was roused by his somewhat bald précis. In African literature: Ethiopian. Kebra nagast book summary kebra nagast lost for centuries, the kebra nagast (the glory of kings) is a truly majestic unveiling of ancient secrets. (pp. Following her departure, Solomon has a dream in which the sun leaves Israel (chapter 30). During the journey home, Menelik learns the Ark is with him, and Solomon discovers that it is gone from his kingdom. The Kebra nagast (Glory of Kings), written from to , relates the birth of Menelik—the son of Solomon and Makada, the queen of Sheba—who became. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. [13], Hubbard details the many sources that the compiler of the Kebra Nagast drew on in creating this work. An English translation of this book is available at Budge, E. A. Wallis, The original Gəʿəz (Ethiopic) text as it appeared edited in Carl Bezold, Kebra Nagast, Die Kerrlichkeit Der Könige: Nach Den Handschriften in Berlin, London, Oxford Und Paris (Munich: K.B. One Gregory answers with a speech (chapters 3-17) which ends with the statement that a copy of the Glory of God w… Following her departure, Solomon has a dream in which the sun leaves Israel (chapter 30). Queen Makeda learns from Tamrin, a merchant based in her kingdom, about the wisdom of King Solomon, and travels to Jerusalem to visit him. And, in spite of the labours of PRÆTORIUS , BEZOLD , and HUGUES LE ROUX , the contents of the work are still practically unknown to the general reader in England. It contains an account of how the Queen of Sheba (Queen Makeda of Ethiopia) met King Solomon and about how the Ark of the Covenant came to Ethiopia with their son Menelik I (Menyelek). However, it provided the foundation for many of the Jesuit accounts of Ethiopia that came after his, including those of Manuel de Almeida and Balthazar Telles.[17]. [14] Marcus thus describes it as "a pastiche of legends ... [that] blended local and regional oral traditions and style and substance derived from the Old and New Testaments, various apocryphal texts, Jewish and Islamic commentaries, and Patristic writings".[15]. This overview is based on Hubbard, "The Literary Sources", pp. This books publish date is Oct 15, 1997 and it has a suggested retail price of $28.99. Macmillan, Oct 15, 1997 - Religion - 203 pages. people will not obey my orders without it.Ó The first summary of the contents of the K‚bra Nagast was published by Bruce as far back as 1813, but little interest was roused by his somewhat bald pr”cis. She stayed and learned from him for six months. Other historians to consider the evidence date parts of it as late as the end of the sixteenth century, when Muslim incursions and contacts with the wider Christian world made the Ethiopian Church concerned to assert its character and assert Jewish traditions. This is the stated aim of Hubbard's doctoral thesis, "The Literary Sources". Kebra Negast, Ge’ez, ክብረ ነገሥት, kəbrä nägäst), or the Book of the Glory of Kings, is an account written in Ge’ez of the origins of the Solomonic line of the Emperors of Ethiopia.The text, in its existing form, is at least seven hundred years old, and is considered by many Ethiopian Christians and Rastafarians to be an inspired and a reliable account. This is a translation of the Kebra Nagast, a tremendous collection of Ethiopian Biblical folklore.The Kebra Nagast tells the legend of the Queen of Sheba's son by King Solomon, Menyelek (also known herein as Bayna-Lehkem and David II). The Kebra Nagast is divided into 117 chapters, and, even after a single reading, one can see that it is clearly a composite work; Ullendorff describes its narrative "a gigantic conflation of legendary cycles." And, in spite of the labours of PR TORIUS, BEZOLD, and HUGUES LE ROUX, the contents of the work are still practically unknown to the general reader in England. The text, in its existing form, is at least 700 years old and is considered by many Ethiopian Christians to be a historically reliable work. Isabel Boavida, Herve Pennec, and Manuel Joao Ramos, eds. It is Overjoyed by this reunion, Solomon tries to convince Menelik to stay and succeed him as king, but Menelik insists on returning to his mother in Ethiopia. The Kebra Nagast: The Lost Bible of Rastafarian Wisdom and Faith From Ethiopia and Jamaica. Based on the testimony of this colophon, "Conti Rossini, Littmann, and Cerulli, inter alios, have marked off the period 1314 to 1321–1322 for the composition of the book.". In chapter 90, we see a heavy emphasis on God's law and rules he sets forth for his believers to follow, which he presents by choosing the house of Jacob to reign as kings and to spread God's message. [10] Marcus (1994) indicated that the religious epic story was conflated in the fourteenth century by six Tigrayan scribes. Hubard notes that it is "a tendency common in Near Eastern writings to merge people of the same name." Additional information on the Kebra Nagast was included by the Jesuit priest Manuel de Almeida in his Historia de Etiopía. by Aksumite clerics. The Greatness of Kings 3. Hubbard, for example, claims to have found only one word which points to a Coptic version. Menelik then engages in a series of military campaigns with the Ark, and "no man conquered him, on the contrary, whosoever attacked him was conquered" (chapter 94). Gregory then delivers an extended speech with prophetic elements (chapters 95–112), forming what Hubbard calls a "Patristic collection of Prophecies": "There can be little doubt that chapters 102–115 are written as polemic against, if not an evangel to, the Jews. [12] On the other hand, the numerous quotations in the text from the Bible were not translated from this hypothetical Arabic vorlage, but were copied from the Ethiopian translation of the Bible, either directly or from memory, and in their use and interpretation shows the influence of patristic sources such as Gregory of Nyssa. In the papers concerning this mission, Álvares included an account of the Emperor of Ethiopia, and a description in Portuguese of the habits of the Ethiopians, titled The Prester John of the Indies, which was printed in 1533. These pages were excised by royal decree from the authorized 1611 king james version of the bible. (chapter 28) The night before she begins her journey home, Solomon tricks her into sleeping with him, and gives her a ring so that their child may identify himself to Solomon. The king attempts to pursue Menelik, but through the Ark's mysterious power, his son with his entire entourage is miraculously flown home to Ethiopia before Solomon can leave his kingdom. Modern Legends of SOLOMON and the Queen of SHEBA 5. The Kebra Nagast (“Glory of Kings”) is the most important Ethiopian scripture. Almeida was sent out as a missionary to Ethiopia, and had abundant opportunity to learn about the Kebra Nagast at first hand, owing to his excellent command of the language. The night before she begins her journey home, Solomon tricks her into sleeping with him, and gives her a ring so that their child may identify himself to Solomon. Menyelek engineers a plot to take the Tabernacle of the Law of God (i.e., the Ark of the Covenant) to Ethiopia. Specifically he focuses on the central element of lineage and royal blood lines that were prevalent at the time. Kebra Negast, Ge'ez ክብረ ነገሥት, kəbrä nägäśt), or The Glory of the Kings, is a 14th-century account written in Ge'ez of the origins of the Solomonic line of the Emperors of Ethiopia.The text, in its existing form, is at least 700 years old and is considered by many Ethiopian Christians and Rastafari to be a historically reliable work. On the journey home, she gives birth to Menelik (chapter 32). Book Summary: The title of this book is The Kebra Nagast and it was written by Gerald Hausman (Editor), Ziggy Marley (Introduction). These fathers pose the question, "Of what doth the Glory of Kings consist?" As the Ethiopianist Edward Ullendorff explained in the 1967 Schweich Lectures, "The Kebra Nagast is not merely a literary work, but it is the repository of Ethiopian national and religious feelings. The Queen of Sheba appears as a prominent figure in the Kebra Nagast (“Glory of King”), the Ethiopian national epic and foundation story. It describes the descent of Amharic kings from queen Makeda of Ethiopia and king Solomon of Judaea. The first summary of the contents of the KEBRA NAGAST was published by BRUCE as far back as 1813, but little interest was roused by his somewhat bald pris. The sacred Ethiopian text known as The Kebra Nagast tells the story of King Soloman, Makeda the Queen of Sheba, and their son Menyelik who hid the Ark of the Covenant in Ethiopia. Royal chronicles were… Read More; Queen of Sheba These chapters seek to prove by OT allegories and proof-texts the Messianic purpose of Jesus, the validity of the Ethiopian forms of worship, and the spiritual supremacy of Ethiopia over Israel." After praising the king of Ethiopia, the king of Egypt, and the book Domitius has found, which has established not only Ethiopia's possession of the true Ark of the Covenant, but that the Solomonic dynasty is descended from the first-born son of Solomon (chapter 95). The Kebra Nagast (var. 5 Reviews. Rastas are monotheists, worshipping a singular God whom they call Jah. Kebra Negast, Ge’ez, kəbrä nägäst), or the Book of the Glory of Kings, is an account written in Ge’ez of the origins of the Solomonic line. It also discusses the conversion of the Ethiopians from the worship of the Sun, Moon and stars to that of the "Lord God of Israel." According to this tradition, the Queen of Sheba (called Makeda) visited Solomon’s court after hearing about his wisdom. Read more about this topic:  Kebra Nagast, “Product of a myriad various minds and contending tongues, compact of obscure and minute association, a language has its own abundant and often recondite laws, in the habitual and summary recognition of which scholarship consists.”—Walter Pater (1839–1894), “The permanence of all books is fixed by no effort friendly or hostile, but by their own specific gravity, or the intrinsic importance of their contents to the constant mind of man.”—Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882). This account draws much of its material from the Hebrew Bible and the author spends most of these pages recounting tales and relating them to other historical events. King Solomon then settles for sending home with him a company formed from the first-born sons of the elders of his kingdom. The Jesuit missionary Pedro Páez included a detailed translation of the Kebra Nagast through Menelek's return to Aksum with the Ark of the Covenant in his História da Ethiópia. The Kingdom of ADAM 4. His manuscript is a valuable work. Other sources put it as a work of the fourteenth century Nebura’ed Yeshaq of Aksum. The king attempts to pursue Menelik, but through the Ark's mysterious power, his son with his entire entourage is miraculously flown home to Ethiopia before Solomon can leave his kingdom. Publisher's Summary. Gregory then delivers an extended speech with prophetic elements (chapters 95-112), forming what Hubbard calls a "Patristic collection of Prophecies": "There can be little doubt that chapters 102-115 are written as polemic against, if not an evangel to, the Jews. SUMMARY The Ge’ez Kebra Nagast was redacted in the 14th century C.E. The Kebra Nagast is divided into 117 chapters, and, even after a single reading, one can see that it is clearly a composite work; Ullendorff describes its narrative "a gigantic conflation of legendary cycles. His brother, Apollinare, also went out to the country as a missionary and was, along with his two companions, stoned to death in Tigray. The sources of Téllez's work were the histories of Manuel de Almeida, Afonso Mendes and Jerónimo Lobo. Menelik then engages in a series of military campaigns with the Ark, and "no man conquered him, on the contrary, whosoever attacked him was conquered" (chapter 94). [16] Completed in the early 1620s, the manuscript was not published in Páez's lifetime. During the journey home, Menelik learns the Ark is with him, and Solomon discovers that it is gone from his kingdom. These fathers pose the question, "Of what doth the Glory of Kings consist?" And, in spite of the labours of Prætorius, Bezold, and Hugues le Roux, the contents of the work are still practically unknown to the general reader in England. One Gregory answers with a speech (chapters 3-17) which ends with the statement that a copy of the Glory of God was made by Moses and kept in the Ark of the Covenant. Handed down orally from generation to generation in Rastafarian and West Indies culture, the Kebra Negast has not been available in English translation since 1922. Many Rastas also treat the Kebra Nagast, a 14th-century Ethiopian text, as a source through which to interpret the Bible. It is probable that the Sheba Cycle predates the 5th century B.C.E. One example is that in chapters 106–107 all but three passages quoted also appear in Gregory of Nyssa's.
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